Thursday, January 28, 2021
This morning, I stumbled upon a live signing session by one of the best selling authors of the fantasy genre, Brandon Sanderson. The American writer also dabbles in science fiction, and his books find readers across the world.
Here is his advice for writing, which he delivers during one of his live book signing sessions. He conducts these sessions online, on Youtube, often. This one is the twenty-sixth live book signing session.
Tuesday, January 26, 2021
#VlogReviews: Episode 3
To nictate while watching their videos is sacrilegious. Every second of their video content brims with clarity, energy, the spirit of adventure and foremost of all, positivity. E BULL JET is one of the most sought after Youtube channels in India, owned by brothers Ebin and Lipin, from Iritty, Kannur of Kerala state. E BULL JET introduced the concept of van life in India. Their videos are usually uploaded daily, by nine at night. Therefore, by the time this review appears on my blog, the video we discuss has become a day old and perhaps even older. On 22 January 2021, E BULL JET released a video, which was more than one hour of length and had a story that no other vlogger in India could tell.
The video showed the brothers journeying through the risky mountainous regions of Sikkim. This area is currently shrouded in a thick coat of snow. They drive up the mountains to reach the place known as ‘zero-point’ with Napoleon, their Force Traveller, their very own house-van. For the first time in the world, a vehicle has become well known in a pet name.
The E Bull Jet enjoys a phenomenal fan-following inviting, often the envy and criticism from peers from the YouTube vlogging community, especially in Kerala. While many stories of how the obstreperous fans of E Bull Jet rummage the peaceful existence of vloggers are rampant on the internet, unspeakable acts of vengeance are also seen against the E Bull Jet brothers and their vehicle Napoleon. Many elite vloggers from Kerala are often seen levelling their scathe of criticism against the style of vlogging and the unruly fan-following of the titular brothers. Recently, these criticisms took a turn with a prominent vlogger. He chastised the negativity in the titles used by the van-life brothers in their videos.
It is also a matter of interest to closely observe the genre of the vloggers who condemned E Bull Jet van-life brothers. By unearthing the connection between the criticisms and the vocational inclination of the critics one may comprehend the secrets of success of E Bull Jet.
All vloggers who lambasted the style of video-titles by E Bull Jet are either travel vloggers or wannabe van-life vloggers. Thus it can be surmised that these criticisms are nothing more than professional rivalry, aimed to please a few jealous. One of these criticisms focuses, as I mentioned earlier, on the negative titles. The prominent vlogger criticizes the van-life brothers by admonishing their practice of devising titles that reflect negative outcomes, yet ‘contrary’ to the content of their videos. Therefore, he calls these titles misleading. This is another way of saying that even though their titles may read luring with some tint of sensationalism with ample doses of negativity, their content always carries a positive message. This also shows that E Bull Jet brothers are also versatile in creating captivating titles for their videos.
Another opprobrium levelled against E Bull Jet is that they claim to be the first van-life in India. The criticism is raised by another van-life team indirectly with an affirmation that they are in fact the inaugurator of van-life in India. Being the actual founding fathers of van-life in India, the E Bull Jet brothers strongly expressed their disagreement in one of their widely circulated retorts on their YouTube channel. The second most important element of the success of E Bull Jet, therefore, is the finding of a niche audience- the van-life. Their content exclusively satisfies those who desire to watch lifestyle videos on van life. Also, with the adventurist element, the videos are fun to watch for all those who intend to have a good time. The length of their videos is another factor that lets the viewer immerse into their content thereby resulting in a longer watch time for the YouTube channel.
Combining these mantras into their equation, the E Bull Jet makes exhilarating videos and lived visuals of adventure. The video released on 22 January 2021 deserves to be defined as the perfect start to a new year full of adventure, beauty, and appreciation for the good things in life. The snowy areas in Sikkim are a tough arena to travel, especially if you are taking a big van like Napoleon, the Force van the brothers are using. The tires of Napoleon often skidded on the slippery snow, and it gave the impression that impending doom was following the two brothers. Brothers Ebin and Lipin were not alone on this journey. They had two other vloggers to their company. What marked this journey as particularly attractive is the spirit of positivity exuded by E Bull Jet even while fencing with the most hopeless of challenges. There were occasions when all their planning to drive the van out of a snowy snare failed miserably, and the rescue driver they had taken with them was also petrified at the confrontation of the challenges.
The wisdom imparted by the E Bull Jet brothers on life and journey during their video was truly inspiring, especially considering the fact they barely completed their school education. Lived experience is the true essence of what they try to communicate with the world. And in this manner, they communicate with a larger audience who are young and do not have time to read heavy toms to satiate their hunger for adventure or wisdom. This niche makes E Bull Jet as an all-time favourite of all generations of people, a strategy so subtle yet evident that unfortunately many vloggers in Kerala are unable to comprehend.
Sunday, January 24, 2021
Sesquipedalian words in the English language are often difficult to pronounce neutrally, without the influence of the mother tongue. This is the real challenge, to make one’s speech of presentation attractive, long words and sentences are to be used in speech. This usage of long English words become efficient with proper neutrality in one’s accent. This can be achieved by practice. An easy way is to listen to the pronunciation of these words spoken by others with either a native English accent, especially a BBC or Oxford accent, or a neutral accent by someone who is well versed in English as a second language. The latter would be your surest path to achieving a neutral accent in the conditions you face in India, where English is a second language.
The following are the symbols used as the phonetic alphabet of the English language. These are known as the International Phonetic Alphabet. The reason why the English language has a phonetic alphabet and another alphabet for writing purposes is that English is a non-phonetic language. This indicates that in the English language, words are not spelt as they are spoken, according to their sound.
The first set of symbols given below are consonants. These consonant sounds are also there in Malayalam language and many other Indian languages. However, there are slight variations, such as the absence of a few consonants in Indian languages and the presence of some additional consonants in the English language. Consonants are speech sounds during the articulation of which audible friction is made.
The next set is Vowels. These are speech sounds during the articulation of which no audible friction is made and the air from lungs passes freely through the mouth. Vowels sounds can also be found in regional Indian languages. There are some differences though, which are due to the absence of some vowel sounds in Indian languages, and the presence of certain vowel sounds in the English language.
Friday, January 22, 2021
The two primordial urges of man are to hunt for food and to show himself or herself to attract mates. These two urges are used by the modern man to find success and win elected contests in the new world. It is Sigmund Freud might say, a drive substantiates all our efforts to shine brighter than others in our field of activity. It could be the proverbial “pleasure principle”. It could also be the drive to influence others (mates, in the primordial context).
If you are a regular visitor to my blog, you must have come across my previous article. In the article, I discuss the vocabulary and pronunciation of the English language. The discussion stems from a question: Which is the best way to develop vocabulary? The answer was that it is important not just to build a vocabulary or to learn the meaning of new words, but also to learn how to pronounce these new words. In this article, we will discuss how to master your spoken English language skills.
The spoken language requires an evolved vocabulary if one wants to win exams and succeed in interviews. Along with the knowledge of words, a knowledge of how to articulate them is also essential. The accent of your speech will decide if you’d be able to impress your peers or qualify interviews like a breeze. Mostly, for group discussions and interviews, this method of learning new words, that is, learning not just the meaning but also the pronunciation, will be a leverage for candidates.
Most learners of the English language, especially non-native speakers of the English language come across a puzzling juncture- how to master the pronunciation of the English language? The neutralized accent is the part that one needs to work for in one’s pronunciation and not the Received Pronunciation standard, which may sound odd and confusing in the long run. Usually, every English language learner who is a non-native speaker of English faces the daunting task of defenestrating the phonological influence of the mother tongue of the learner. It is also a process of unlearning. At this point, one may feel like it’s rejecting our mother tongue. No, it’s not a rejection of mother tongue, but it’s a re-learning of mother tongue with special focus on where to limit the sounds of the mother tongue when speaking in the English language.
There is another way, an easier one to master English language speaking skill with a neutral accent. The best method to speak with a good accent is to learn all the sounds in their standard RP pronunciation. This is true about learning any language. In the case of the English language, there are 44 sounds. If you practice these 44 sounds, learn how to pronounce them, you can improve your accent. However, this may not be enough. Along with using the sounds that are part of the International English Phonetic Alphabet, there is also a need to differentiate between Malayalam speech sounds and English speech sounds. One should not use Malayalam speech sounds to articulate English words or sentences. This will radically transform how you speak in the English language.
I have made a short video on this subject. It’s available on my channel on Youtube, Lit Craft Tech by Anu Lal. Access it for a better grasp about how to learn spoken English well.
You have learned that there are 44 sounds in the English language. These are 44 speech sounds, meaning, sounds that help us speak. Similarly, there are speech sounds in our mother tongue. If we use the speech sounds of our mother tongue to speak in the English language, we will pronounce words wrongly. It is quite a cognate of jumbling up speech sounds. So next time, focus especially on how to pronounce words also. Just by strictly adhering to the basic speech sounds of the English language would help us present our language neatly. If you could not learn the correct pronunciation of all the words in your vocabulary, there is no need to worry. Just choose from the 44 sounds whenever you say something in English.
Wednesday, January 20, 2021
Floccinaucinihilipilification means “the action or habit of estimating something as worthless”, according to the Oxford Dictionary. Turning a page in a dictionary might usually get you the meaning of the desired word. This is even easier in the digital environment where you just type a word and search or speak a word and search.
Meaning of the semantic identity of a word is essential in grasping the particular identity of the lexical item. To retain a word in memory, it is always good to learn the meaning in different contexts. Note the plural “contexts”. Just by referring to a dictionary, one may not be able to retain the word in memory. The memory of human beings works best when remembering narratives. This is especially true, as I had personally experienced when we prepare for examinations. However, in life so demanding, where good communication skill is essentially the quality of language we articulate, would a basket full of words suffice to our success?
The answer to this question should be a wake-up call for most of us. The question is answered in the negative. It’s not just the number of words and the sentence structures that helps us, but how we articulate the words. Our utterance has the power to either build or shatter our personality. This is a stark reality in spoken English communication, especially if you are a person from a culture where English is a second language if you are a non-native speaker.
Non-native speakers of any language often struggle to find the correct pronunciation of words. Consequently, word stress, sentence stress, pitch and tone of the sentences are also not acquired during the interactions that take place in second-language classrooms. If a word is learned without knowing the sounds units in the word, the learner would find it difficult to recognize the word while listening to it or communicate it precisely to the receiving end in the communicative process. The result is a fruitless communication, an act of floccinaucinihilipilification. Even this word, with which we started our short discussion on the importance of how words sound like, need to be learned with its proper pronunciation to be used later in a practical context.
How is it possible for a second language learner to learn to pronounce new words? Wouldn’t it be too difficult? Wouldn’t we need a native speaker to tell us how to pronounce words properly in the standard English?
The global standard for English pronunciation is called RP or received Pronunciation, which is the BBC English, also known as Queen’s English in common parlance. It may not be accurate to say that every non-native speaker of English should follow the correct RP since it strenuously prescribes the legacy of the colonizer’s language, for someone learning RP from India. The many versions of English available across the world are an example of how someone from India also could make use of the particular variant of English in India. General Indian English is a variety of English accepted as standard Indian English. The term ‘general’ indicates how this variant of English distances itself from regional languages of the country.
The mother tongue of the second language speaker expresses a strong impact upon the pronunciation habits. This creates an accent of the mother tongue on spoken English of the non-native speaker. The best way to learn how to pronounce words properly is to neutralize our accent as much as possible. This indicates subtracting the influence of the mother tongue from the pronunciation of English words.
This method of building a neutral accent or adhering to a national standard of pronunciation is easier said than done. However, pressing demands from the many fast-developing career options leave no room for laxation. We must learn the pronunciation of words along with learning their meaning. Building a vocabulary also includes practising sounds that help us articulate words and sentences better.
There are forty-four speech sounds in English. Learning these speech sounds will enable us in articulating words with the proper pronunciation.
Monday, January 18, 2021
For the first time, for my tenth book, I broke my convention. My convention was to release the book in quiet solitude. No one probably realizes that a new book has been released into the vast sea of other books, into a battle for attention by authors, reviewers, and publishers.
This time, I decided to ask my readers on Instagram their suggestions regarding the release date of the book. To my surprise, many responses came and all of them were extremely useful for me to fix the release date of my book. The book that I am talking about is my new book Stories We Live. The finalization of the release date of Stories We Live was inspired by this social media event. The question was asked, if they could suggest a release date, on Instagram, which was later shared on Facebook and WhatsApp.
Most numbers of suggestions were received on Instagram. The names that I would like to acknowledge here are, author Devika, my buddy Divyank, author Krithika Sharma, Deepti Gupta, Ashwini Iyer, author Kapil Raj, and others.
I would like to thank all of them who helped me release my book Stories We Live on 14 January 2021.
A special thanks are due to renowned Iranian translator, author Sougand Akbarian, author of SouganDilli, for sharing an invaluable remark on, Stories We Live. When I requested her for an endorsement, she had readily agreed, according to which I sent her a copy of the manuscript. After reading the manuscript, she shared a beautiful quote on the book, which itself reads like poetry. Her quote made my book shine even brighter.
I have a humble request to make to all my readers. Without support from a home crowd, it becomes very difficult to play and win any game played amid greatly stressful circumstances. I have realized recently that my people, the people of Kerala have been showing very less support towards my books. The reason why they do it is perhaps that I write in the English language. Perhaps, they think I am arrogant and that is why I write in English. This is not true. The choice of language is primarily to secure a larger reach and to cater to a wider audience. My selection of language is English because of another reason too, and that is, my mother tongue, Malayalam and the knowledge about its literary expressions are very limited. Even though I studied in a Malayalam medium school, the vernacular Malayalam was the only version of the language I was well versed in. But writing in vernacular Malayalam didn’t help me get published. The mainstream Malayalam weeklies, offbeat weeklies, and newspapers, back in the nineties and early twenty-first century, promoted literary Malayalam with its high-sounding words and expressions, the almost brahminical twist to the language that I grew up with.
Like many of my generation, this brahminical casteism in the literary use of Malayalam distanced me from writing in the language. It sounded artificial, phoney, and unbearable.
Shunned by the people of Kerala, even when I wrote a book on the worst disaster the state had ever faced, the megafloods of 2018, titled Life After the Floods, I could only wish no other writer would have to deal with a similar situation. Life After the Floods primarily focused on the psychological impacts the floods would have had on the population affected by it. The book also suggests many steps be followed by anyone who reaches a flood-affected area to help the affected people.
You’d say that my release strategy, that I mentioned in the beginning, the silent type, was faulty. No one might have heard about the book. This could be true, had I not invested a considerable amount of money on the marketing of the book, especially on Instagram, Facebook, and on Amazon itself.
Kannur, the district where I am from, is always slow to respond to literary matters. This is my request to the people of Kannur and that of Kerala. For any author to survive, there should be a considerable number of book sales. Without this, flamboyant praises, and literary gatherings wouldn’t help. Literature in Indian English has potential, especially when it is written from Kerala, the south of India. The mainstream of this category belongs to the north of India. I urge both the readers of the north and the south to purchase copies and support this endeavour. This is the only way I could bring more stories to you. My books are always priced below Rs 200. This makes them affordable for common people. Reading an English book would give a good vocabulary for kids, ideas, and stories for the readers, and certainly teach a lesson or two about life.
We spend more than Rs 200 on many unnecessary items, often even daily, including, lotteries, liquor, or cigars. A book is an asset. It will increase your value, even if it is kept neatly in your showcase. Once in a month, why don’t you spend at least Rs 200 on buying a book for you or your beloved ones? Not all authors need to sell lakhs of copies of their books. Just a thousand books sold over one month would help make a decent living.
Let me wind up this write-up here. Please consider my request and act on it. It would be appreciated.
Saturday, January 16, 2021
Seagull= a popular name for a gull.
Gull= a long-winged web-footed seabird with a raucous call, typically having white plumage with a grey or black mantle.
Plumage=a bird's feathers collectively.
Ledge: a narrow horizontal surface projecting from a wall, cliff, or other surface.
Flap= (of a bird) move (its wings) up and down when flying or preparing to fly.
plateau (N)- an area of flat land that is higher than the land around it.
scold (v)- to speak angrily to somebody, especially a child, because they have done something wrong
ascending (adj) - increasing in size or importance.
gnaw (v)- bite at or nibble something persistently.
persistently (adv)- continuously
trot (v) : run at a moderate pace
daintily(adverb): in a careful way that suggests good manners
Means (N): a way of achieving or doing something
precipice (n) : very steep rock face/cliff
beneath (Preposition): under somebody / something
Brink (N): the extreme edge of land
Doze (V): to sleep lightly for a short time
Preen (V): for a bird to make its feathers smooth with its beak
Hump (N): a large mass that sticks out above the surface of something, especially the ground
Scrape (V): rubbing against a hard surface
Whet (V): to increase your desire for or interest in something
Self-reliance (n): Reliance on one's own powers and resources rather than those of others.
Soar (V)= to fly very high in the air or remain high in the air
Swoop (V) = to fly quickly and suddenly downwards, especially in order to attack somebody/something
Commence (V) = to begin something
Thursday, January 14, 2021
Answer the following questions:
Why was the young seagull afraid to fly?
The seagull was afraid to fly because below him was the vast sea and he thought his wings would never support him and he would fall into the sea and die.
What did the parents do to motivate the young bird when it failed to muster up enough courage to fly?
They came around calling to him in a loud voice, scolding him, threatening to let him starve on his ledge unless he flew away.
3. How did the parents support and encourage the young seagull’s brothers and sister?
They flew about with them, trying to perfect them in the art of flight. They taught them how to skim the waves and how to dive for fish. When his older brother caught his first herring and devoured it, his parents circled around raising a proud cackle.
4. Cite an instance which shows the pathetic condition of the young bird.
When the sun was shining hot, the young bird felt the heat all the more because he had not eaten anything since yesterday night. He searched everywhere but not a scrap of food was found. He even gnawed at the dried pieces of eggshell, from which he and his brothers and sister were hatched. It was like eating a part of himself.
5. How did the bird try to reach its parents without having to fly?
He trotted back and forth from one end of the ledge to the other, trying to find some means of reaching his parents without flying. But on each side of him, the ledge ended in a sheer fall of a precipice with the sea beneath.
6. Why could the seagull not succeed in its attempt?
The seagull could not succeed in its attempt because there was nothing to walk on that would take him to his parents. A deep, wide crack separated him from his parents, and there was no way for him to reach them except by flying to them.
7.Do you think that the young seagull’s parents were cruel?
No, the parents of the seagull were not cruel. They were wise in trying to teach him the importance of self-reliance.
8. Can you justify the attitude of the parents?
The parents were right in their actions. They intended to teach him the importance of confidence and self-reliance. One can’t depend on his parents all his life for his livelihood. He should learn to find food for himself once he reaches a certain stage of his life.
9. Your parents sometimes behave in the same manner. They may seem cruel and unrelenting. Does it mean that they do not love you?
Our parents sometimes behave in such a cruel and unrelenting manner to make us self-reliant. This does not mean they do not love us. It only means they love us and that is why they train us to be independent and self-reliant. If they treat us as a helpless baby all the time, we will remain helpless. So it is their love that forces them to be seemingly cruel and unrelenting at times.
10. What prompted the young seagull to fly finally?
The seagull was prompted to fly finally by his hunger. He was starving, and the mother would not give him the fish she had brought with her. His mother wanted him to fly to her to get it.
11. Why was the young bird terrified? How did it overcome its fear?
When the mother of the young bird brought fish, she didn’t let him eat the fish until he was ready to fly. The seagull dived at the fish, maddened by hunger. He fell outwards and downwards into space. His mother had swooped upwards. As he passed beneath her, he heard the swish of her wings. Then a monstrous terror seized him, and his heart stood still. But fear only lasted a moment. The wind rushed against his breast feathers, then under his stomach and against his wings. He could feel the tips of his wings cutting through the air. He realized that he was no longer falling now. He was flying gradually, downwards and outwards. Therefore, he was no longer afraid.
12. How did the family support the seagull?
The family supported the seagull by flying around him with joyous screams. His mother flew past him, making joyful sounds. His father flew over him, screaming with joy. His two brothers and sister were flying around him, soaring and diving. In this way, the family supported him.
13. Why couldn’t the young seagull stand on the green sea?
The young seagull could not stand on the green sea because the legs would go down the water. But when his belly touched the water, he did not sink further.
14. Do you think that the bird’s parents loved him? Why?
Yes, the bird’s parents loved him. They wanted to teach him how to be courageous and self-confident. The mother even came with a piece of fish to tempt him to attempt the flight. And when finally he flew, all the family members showed their joy by flying with him and making happy noises.
Dear students, in each lesson you have several new words to study. I would like to share the new words and their meaning from the first lesson in the next post.
Tuesday, January 12, 2021
Students of our time go through a plethora of concerns before joining courses for higher education. These concerns may include future career options, financial investment, the ease in the processes involved with the course, and personal preferences. One of the most profitable courses in recent years is MA in English with its scope, ease in handling, and usefulness in real life. Job opportunities were ample for anyone with an MA English qualification. The COVID-19 pandemic has somewhat transformed the area of higher education. Along with changes in many sectors, it has created a drastic change in the enthusiasm for Courses in Humanities and Arts for higher education.
It is quite organic a thought process that post-pandemic a society would affirmatively imagine a future interlinked with the pandemic. This is especially true for professional courses and the future career any graduate would want to choose. The medical profession has become a hot chocolate of choice for students and their parents recently. The medical and paramedical field can certainly cater to an increasing influx of students. A good quality health system is the sole defence against a pandemic of similar gravity in the future. The lack of enthusiasm felt in Arts subjects for higher studies is one of the many results of such a drifting career-hope.
Kannur University, due to regulation from UGC, has decided to stop its distance education courses. This year Kannur Univeristy has initiated Private Registration, which might wind up once the Sree Narayana Guru Open University starts functioning in Kerala. The Private Registration in Kannur University prescribes the same syllabus as the regular courses, an irreplaceable opportunity for many who were unable to join a regular aided college or unaided self-financing college. The examinations shall be conducted Humanities subjects often shine as the best career path especially if selected in private studies, due to the sheer freedom of expression the student gets from the lack of a regular college system and the welcome relief from the frequent intervention of the college in a semester system.
The unscrupulous limitation in the number of seats in regular colleges and the phenomenal tuition fees exerted by the self-financing, unaided colleges often leave the students and their families with depression and a sense of failure. The opportunities offered by private registration are limitless. However, whenever the topic of discussions turns to private education there is always that sense of shame and embarrassment to acknowledge that one’s son or daughter is doing a degree course in the Private stream. What motivates such feeling of shame and academic apartheid is the Indian penchant for certificates and status quos.
Many students and parents go through a devastating psychological turmoil while engaging with the realities of higher education. A penchant for certificates and status quo alone wouldn’t guarantee a seat in the best college in town. It requires not just good scores but also a grand investment of finances especially in the present context, as the admission process has become a contest. Students and their parents vie for a limited number of seats in colleges that conduct regular courses. The result is a debilitatingly smaller scale of satiation for the parents and students, most of them end up feeling rejected and left out.
Private Education, in this context, can offer a better alternative to students. The traditional view is that private and open courses are for those who fail to score good grades in exams. However, in the post-covid world, the quality of education only matters. When most of the candidates are choosing professional courses such as medical degrees, Arts, Humanities, and Commerce may offer a better chance of success.
For those students who are choosing Private Registration under Kannur University, some parallel institutions are worthy of recommendation. Nalanda College Eachur is the best among them, in Kannur district. Those who intend to know more about Private Registration for MA, MCom, BA, BCom, BCA, etc. can contact them. Phone: 04972857965, 2859859
Sunday, January 10, 2021
The Results of Roman Rule: Essay Question, Main Points
Establishment of Roman institutions.
Romanization of Britain.
Under the Roman military rule, the Britons experienced the peace that existed in various nations under Roman rule, known as Pax Romana or Roman Peace.
They built an excellent network of roads from London in all directions.
They encouraged agriculture, commerce, mining, and industry. Commodities like corn, furs, pearls, and various metals were exported and luxury goods were imported.
They were great builders of forts at important places of the country to safeguard the country's internal peace and protect it from foreign invasions.
About 130 forts were thus built as a way of defence.
Agricola built a line of forts between rivers Tyne and Eden on the Roman road known as "Stanegate".
During Emperor Hadrian’s rule (from 117 to 138 CE) the famous Hadrian’s Wall was built in the North of England to keep away infiltrators.
Some of the flourishing cities of the present were originally Roman towns or fortresses.
Well-planned town with its orderly administration. Many new towns developed on the side of the newly constructed roads.
Each town had its forum, temples, courts of justice, bath, markets, and main drains.
Another significant contribution of the Romans to Britain was the construction of so many Roman Villas (country houses).
The Christian faith is seen as the greatest indirect result of the Roman conquest of Britain.
The Romans also introduced the Latin language to Celtic England.
The authentic history of England commences only after the Roman conquest.
Reference: A Handbook of British History by K M Abraham